Activity Chair

Phillip Levy, MD, MPH, FACP, FAHA
Professor and Associate Chair
Department of Emergency Medicine
Director, Clinical Research Service Center
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Detroit, MI

Disclosures -
Consulting Fee: Novartis Pharmaceuticals, ZS Pharma


Geoffrey A. Block, MD
Director of Research, Denver Nephrology Research
Colorado Kidney Care
Denver, CO

Disclosures –
Consulting Fee: Relypsa, ZS Pharma
Contracted Research: Relypsa, ZS Pharma

Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH, FACC, FACP, FAHA, FCCP
Vice Chief of Medicine
Baylor University Medical Center
Dallas, TX

Disclosures – No relevant financial relationships to disclose.

W. Frank Peacock, MD, FACEP, FACC
Professor, Emergency Medicine
Associate Chair and Research Director
Baylor College of Medicine/Ben Taub General Hospital
Houston, TX

Disclosures –
Consulting Fee: Alere, Beckman, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Cardiorentis, Instrument Labs, Janssen, Phillips, Portola, Prevencio, Singulex, The Medicine’s Company, ZS Pharma
Contracted Research: Abbott, Alere, Banyan, Cardiorentis, Janssen, Portola, Pfizer, Roche, ZS Pharma
Ownership Interest: Comprehensive Research Associates LLC, Emergencies in Medicine LLC

Peer Reviewer

Camiron L. Pfennig, MD, MHPE
Disclosures – No relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Vindico Medical Education Staff: No relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Signed Disclosure(s) are on file at Vindico Medical Education, Office of Medical Affairs and Compliance.

Accredited By

Activity Details

Credit Type: CME/ACEP
Credit Amount: 1.5 credit hours
Release Date: December 16, 2016
Expiration Date: December 16, 2017
Estimated Time to Complete Activity: 1.5 hours
Registration Required: No
Fee for Activity: No

Activity Description

Hyperkalemia is an electrolyte abnormality marked by elevated serum potassium levels that can induce adverse electrophysiologic changes, resulting in malignant arrhythmias and death. A major risk factor for the development of hyperkalemia is chronic kidney disease (CKD), but medications prescribed for other conditions that are frequently comorbid with CKD, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, can also cause hyperkalemia. In the emergency department, initial intervention for acute hyperkalemia may include sodium polystyrene sulfonate (given orally and/or via retention enema), intravenous diuretics, insulin–glucose administration, intravenous saline, and, to a lesser extent, intravenous bicarbonate or calcium, with treatments that target intracellular potassium shifts or enhance renal and gastrointestinal elimination. In addition, sodium zirconium cyclosilicate is in late-stage clinical trials for the treatment of both acute and chronic hyperkalemia, providing another therapeutic option in the future. This activity will focus on the pathophysiology and underlying issues that induce hyperkalemia, as well as the management of hyperkalemia by the emergency medicine physician or other health care professionals involved in the treatment of these patients.


Recognizing Hyperkalemia
Phillip Levy, MD, MPH, FACP, FAHA

Recognizing and Understanding Hyperkalemia in the Emergency Department
W. Frank Peacock, MD, FACEP, FACC

Management of Hyperkalemia
Phillip Levy, MD, MPH, FACP, FAHA

Current Management of Hyperkalemia in the Emergency Department
Geoffrey A. Block, MD

Hyperkalemia Case Wrap-up
Phillip Levy, MD, MPH, FACP, FAHA

New and Emerging Potassium Binders for Hyperkalemia
Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH, FACC,FACP, FAHA, FCCP

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this educational activity, participants should be better able to:

  • Describe the signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia.
  • Outline the pathophysiology of hyperkalemia and potential electrocardiographic changes it may cause.
  • Evaluate the efficacy and safety data of new and emerging treatments for hyperkalemia.
  • Differentiate among the new and emerging agents for hyperkalemia for improved treatment selection.

Target Audience

The intended audience for this activity is emergency physicians and other health care professionals involved in the treatment of patients with hyperkalemia.

Conflict of Interest Policy / Disclosure Statement

In accordance with the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education’s Standards for Commercial Support, all CME providers are required to disclose to the activity audience the relevant financial relationships of the planners, teachers, and authors involved in the development of CME content. An individual has a relevant financial relationship if he or she has a financial relationship in any amount occurring in the last 12 months with a commercial interest whose products or services are discussed in the CME activity content over which the individual has control. Relationship information appears above.

Accreditation Statement for Physicians

Vindico Medical Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Vindico Medical Education designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Approved by the American College of Emergency Physicians for a maximum of 1.5 hour(s) of ACEP Category I credit.

Instructions for Receiving Credit

To participate in this CME activity, you must read the objectives, answer the pretest questions, view the content, and complete the CME posttest and evaluation. Provide only one (1) correct answer for each question. A satisfactory score is defined as answering 80% of the posttest questions correctly. Upon receipt of the completed materials, if a satisfactory score on the posttest is achieved, Vindico Medical Education will issue an AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ Certificate.

Accreditation Statement

This continuing medical education activity is provided by Vindico Medical Education.

Statement of Commercial Support

This activity is supported by an educational grant from ZS Pharma, Inc.

Disclaimer Statement / Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

The audience is advised that this continuing education activity may contain references to unlabeled uses of FDA-approved products or to products not approved by the FDA for use in the United States. The faculty members have been made aware of their obligation to disclose such usage.

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Copyright Statement

Created and published by Vindico Medical Education, 6900 Grove Road, Building 100, Thorofare, NJ 08086-9447. Telephone: 856-994-9400; Fax: 856-384-6680. Printed in the USA. Copyright © 2016 Vindico Medical Education. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without written permission from the publisher. The material presented at or in any of Vindico Medical Education continuing medical education activities does not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of Vindico Medical Education. Neither Vindico Medical Education nor the faculty endorse or recommend any techniques, commercial products, or manufacturers. The faculty/authors may discuss the use of materials and/or products that have not yet been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. All readers and continuing education participants should verify all information before treating patients or utilizing any product.

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